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Have you seen photos of Venus?  When the planet is observed in visible light it looks like a big bland ecru ball (see above).  Put a whiteboard and some plastic rolling chairs on that puppy and you would have a corporate conference room in some awful suburban office-park.  Yet ultraviolet imaging of Venus paints a somewhat more interesting picture of swirling bands or darkness in the heady acid atmosphere of our sister planet.  But what does that mean?


The dark bands turn out to be the result of sulfur compounds (carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide) and other yet unknown chemical compounds in the upper atmosphere of Venus.  On Earth these sulfur compounds are hallmarks of life…or of volcanic activity.  Some scientists are provocatively asking whether extremophile bacteria could have a place in the temperate upper atmosphere of Earth’ closest planetary neighbor.  The bacteria could use the rich sulfur and carbon clouds as building blocks and the UV (and other EM radiation!) bombardment of the sun for energy.  Perhaps, they muse, these dark bands are something akin to algal blooms in Earth’s oceans.

More than a billion years ago, Venus enjoyed a period of prolonged earthlike climate with surface water and an atmosphere which was not so hellishly heavy and hot.  But something went hideously awry and runaway greenhouse effect created a terrible feedback loop which changed the planet’s surface into the monstrous place it is today.  Apparently the igneous/volcanic processes of Venus are rather different than those of Earth, so it was probably not all treeferns, friendly dinosaurs, and bikini-clad aliens even before the runaway greenhouse phase melted away the old surface of Venus, but perhaps bacteria (or analogous lifeforms) could have evolved and escaped the catastrophe by moving into the upper clouds (which, as previously noted here, have temperatures not unlike those of Earth’s surface).


My guess is that Venus is lifeless as a jackhammer (though, like a jackhammer it can give the alarming appearance of life), yet even if this is the case, we should know more about all of this! What happened to Venus’ original surface? Was there ever life there?  What is going on with its volcanoes and internal geology?  What is the composition of the clouds of Venus? Is there anything there other than strange sufur compounds and esoteric hydrocarbons formed from the mixture of sulfur, carbon dioxide, and UV radiation?   Once again, our nearest neighbor is beckoning.  We need to move forward with sophisticated atmospheric probes (like VAMP) and NASA should collaborate with Russia on their next Venus mission (it looks like our governments are closer than ever anyway).  For some reason, popular imagination disdains Venus, yet the questions there seem salient, and the possibilities for a nearby Earth-sized world of unlimited energy and resources seem, well, unlimited.

Close observation of this image will make you feel better about our current financial situation and about the moral progress of our nation.

The Panic of 1837 was one of the worst financial crises to ever hit the United States of America (at the time it was the worst).  It brought a five year recession in its wake.  Gloom mongers (and even hard-headed realists) believed that the nation would never recover its prosperity.

During the 1830s there was an immense boom of real estate speculation focused on public lands which were being sold off to buyers with political connections.  Huge fortunes could be made by reselling this land to railroad companies and canal builders who were rushing forward with competing projects.  The individual states were complicit with this mania, sinking vast amounts of public money into a diverse array of infrastructure projects both good and bad.

A "wildcat" three dollar banknote issued by a Michigan Bank for some sort of "Safety Fund" in 1837

Through various vetoes and political maneuvers President Andrew Jackson had successfully engineered the demise of the Second Bank of the United States (which was unable to renew its charter in 1832).  A great rash of new banks and investment companies sprang up throughout the 1830’s to supplant the bank.  Rather than paying off their debts and refinancing new projects, these financial houses anticipated greater profits from investing borrowed capital in the booming land speculations.  Because of this apparent national prosperity, the balance of trade shifted.  America, previously an exporter, was suddenly importing more goods than it was selling.  In anticipation of the huge profits, American states and corporations (and wealthy individuals) were borrowing money from European banks.  Additionally,  the world’s climate was changing in the 1830s.  An unusually cold era marked by intense volcanic activity and by an anomalous paucity of sunspots (the Dalton minimum) was coming to an end.  As environmental conditions changed, crops failed in 1835 and in 1837.

All of these factors were topped off by disastrous executive meddling.  The Specie Circular Act was an executive order issued summarily by Andrew Jackson in 1836 (during his last year in office) and carried out by his unfortunate successor. It required payment for all government land to be in gold or silver.  Jackson anticipated that the nation’s coffers would fill up with precious metals (he apparently did not trust paper money).  But people did not and could not pay.  The bubble burst.  Over 600 banks failed and the cotton market completely collapsed.  Eight states partially or wholly failed and even the Federal government was unable to discharge its debts.  Trade stood still as business confidence evaporated entirely.  Food riots shook the country.  Unemployment and hardship were the watchwords of the time.  The whole sad affair was exacerbated by economic calamity overseas: European bankers, suffering from their own setbacks, curtailed lending.  It was not until 1842 that the economy began to recover.

"I have no money and cannot get any work."

Strangely enough, the grim era between 1837 and 1842 witnessed tremendous technical innovations which would reshape the nation and the world.  In 1837 Samuel Morse invented the electric telegraph, which he successfully tested on January 6th 1838 at the Speedwell near Morristown, New Jersey–thus inventing the telecommunications industry.  Crawford Williamson Long used ether for the first time on March 30, 1842 to remove a tumor from the neck of a patient and usher in a new era of surgery.  In Europe a German chemist invented artificial fertilizer while James Nasmyth perfected the steam hammer (which made it much easier to build large machines).  Morse’s accomplishments and those of his fellow inventors are remembered.  The failures of the rapacious bankers, greedy speculators, and incompetent politicians have been forgotten by everyone except for historians.

Ye Olde Ferrebeekeeper Archives

August 2020