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The glass squid, Cranchia scabra

The glass squid, Cranchia scabra

The Cranchiidae are a family of squid commonly known as “glass squid” which live in oceans around the world. The squid are of no interest to commercial fisheries (yet) and a great deal about this family remains completely unknown. Most of the 60 known species of cranchiidae are small and inconspicuous–indeed the majority are transparent and thus nearly invisible. However the largest known mollusk, the colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni), is part of the family, (so it might be wise not to antagonize them on the playground).

Glass Squid (Taonius belone) off Hawaii. Photograph by R. Young.

Glass Squid (Taonius belone) off Hawaii. Photograph by R. Young.

Glass squid are notable for having stubby swollen-looking bodies and short arms except for one long pair of hunting tentacles. The majority of glass squid have bioluminescent organs which they use to hunt, to communicate and to disguise the faint shadows cast by their transparent bodies (predators of the deep can see even the faintest shadows cast by the dim light from the surface). The cranchiid squids themselves sport a variety of interesting and complex eyes which range from giant circular eyes to stalked eyes to telescoping eyes.   This little gallery shows how delicate, diverse, and beautiful (and how utterly alien) these squid can be.

Banded Piglet Squid (Helicocranchia pfefferi) photo by keyofv

Banded Piglet Squid (Helicocranchia pfefferi) photo by keyofv

Bathothauma lyromma (note eyes on stalks!)

Bathothauma lyromma (note eyes on stalks!)

A drawing of the piglet squid (Helicocranchia pfefferi)

A drawing of the piglet squid (Helicocranchia pfefferi)

Sandalops melancholicus by Chun Carl

Sandalops melancholicus by Chun Carl

Teuthowenia megalops

Teuthowenia megalops

Cranchia scabra

Cranchia scabra

Juvenile cranchiid squid are part of the plankton and live near the surface where they hunt microscopic prey while trying to avoid thousands of sorts of predators. As they mature, they change shape and descend to deeper waters—indeed some species become practically benthic and can be found more than 2 kilometeres under the ocean. Glass squid move up and down the water column by means of a fluid filled chamber which contains an ammonia solution (which maybe explains why they are not on the human menu yet).

Belonella belone

Belonella belone

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