Eridanus is a large constellation which has been known since ancient times. The constellation begins in the north (near Orion’s left foot) then winds south across the sky before snaking west towards Cetus the sea monster. The river of stars which makes up Erdanus then doubles back east and eventually ends far to the south at the border with Hydrus, the water snake. Because of its antiquity, there is some dispute as to where the name Eridanus came from: second-century Greek astronomers believed the name indicated the sacred (mythical) river which Phaeton plummeted into after his unhappy attempt to drive the chariot of the sun. Other etymologists, however, think that the name originated in ancient Mesopotamia where “the star of Eridu” was sacred to the primeval god Enki, lord of the abzu, a mythical abyss filled with all the fresh water in the world. Eridu was the first known city of Earth, so the name may go back to the origin of civilization.
Whatever the origins of the name are, the constellation is the site of one of the strangest and most controversial objects in the heavens. In 2007, astronomers using radio telescopes to survey the universe were astonished to discover nothing. More specifically they discovered an immense and disconcerting amount of nothing—an enormous void in space time more than a billion light-years in diameter. The Eridanus supervoid lies between six to 10 billion light-years away and its existence seems to be at odds with current cosmological models.
Cosmologists have several schools of thought concerning how the supervoid came into being and what its real nature is. Because I am having trouble understanding any of these crazy theories, I have provided a rudimentary metaphor for each in blue (which would probably offend cosmologists, if they were reading my blog).
1) Supporters of the standard model Big Bang theory say the region is colder because of dark energy, a hypothetical form of energy believed to permeate all of space. If it exists, dark energy uniformly fills otherwise empty space yet interacts with none of the known forces in the universe (save gravity). The void is not empty but is filled with dark energy–which we do not yet understand: just like an empty room would seem empty to the Babylonians (despite being filled with air to us).
2) A contrary theory proposes that the known universe orbits a supermassive black hole (in the same fashion that galaxies spiral around central black holes). This explanation would explain the “accelerating/expanding” universe as a sort of illusion: objects on the edge of the universe would be orbiting at a greater velocity than objects close to the black hole—a phenomenon which would affect their red shift relative to us. Of course anything that got too close to the black hole in the void would be swallowed to an unknown doom into a black hole with the mass of another universe. The universe is like an old vinyl record being spun around by a black hole in the center which is enormous beyond comprehension. The expansion of the universe is an illusion caused by our limited perspective in such a scenario.
3) Laura Mersini-Houghton, a cosmologist who theorizes about the multiverse, believes that the supervoid is the imprint of another universe beyond our own. Quantum entanglement has allowed us to see a shadow of this parallel universe in the form of the great empty spot located in Eridanus. ??? Um, there are other universes out there which interact with our own in unknown ways which cause big holes (or maybe windows).
4) Conservative astronomers speculate that the empty spot is an anomaly of the cosmic texture of the early universe. Phase transition after the big bang resulted in heterogeneous distribution of matter. The universe is like a loaf of bread—sometimes it just has big holes in it because of the way it came into being.
5) The radiometric finding method by which the void was discovered is flawed. The area only seems anomalously “cold” (in terms of EM emissions) because of a relatively hot ring of emissions surrounding it. The void doesn’t exist. It was a mistake in observation.
6) Something else entirely which we don’t yet comprehend and haven’t even imagined. Something else entirely which we don’t yet comprehend and haven’t even imagined.
I’ll be honest here. Since I don’t have a radio telescope array or a degree in theoretical physics, these ideas are pretty hard to assay. They are also wildly divergent. I am therefore going to evaluate them aesthetically/emotionally (i.e. uselessly) in the following manner. The first idea has the support of the astrophysics community, but is unsatisfactory until we have a more-than-theoretical understanding of dark energy (which could be forthcoming because of our discovery of the Higgs Bosun). The second idea seems like it could be tested with mathematical modeling and astronomical observation (which so far seem to indicate there is no giant black hole in the middle of everything). The third idea seems insane—and yet I have always intuitively felt that there are universes beyond this one (I’m sorry to be so guilty of such magical/hopeful thinking). The fourth and fifth ideas seem quite plausible because they are boring (although why is the universe leavened like bread? Or why does it contain large relatively hot rings?). The sixth idea is always applicable to everything.
Of course all this speculation may all be moot: a more recent survey of the southern sky from a radio telescope in Australia suggests that there might be a much larger 3.5 billion light-year-wide void in the known universe. That would certainly steer us back toward more conservative models of the universe, while at the same time leaving us with yet more questions.